the gapanese invasion is nigh!

"pinakamaganda ka nga sa buong kapuluan, pero latina na naman ang magwawagi ng korona at sash sa miss world! racism ba ito? lupasay!"

Sunday, August 30, 2009

why i read

I engage in various worthwhile activities, but I consider reading a matter of special import. Ever since my father’s sister—my first teacher—taught me how to figure out characters in papers, I have established an intimate friendship with this activity. With the many benefits reading offers me, it is small wonder why I prioritize decoding texts over, say, traveling or exercise. After all, with reading, I get to travel and exercise, too. Many worlds are opened to me even as I only sit in a corner of my own, so it is just as well as taking a panoramic, knowledgeable trip to the universe of my author at the moment. Likewise, I get to participate in a brain exercise that not only sparks my ingenuity, but also makes certain visions meet reality. Reading takes me to different horizons and ultimately empowers me with information I hold in my fingertips.

Friday, August 28, 2009

individual vs. team

Individual performance and team spirit are two disparate ways through which tasks may be accomplished. At one end, the enhanced quality of a person’s life depends on his optimized freedom and opportunity for self-development. On the far end, this improved quality depends not necessarily on individual liberty and improvement but on one’s team spirit. As may be gleaned from above, a person’s wants and needs clash against a group’s interests. Hence, a contradiction exists between the value of strong believing persons and that of compromising ones for the team’s greater good. Whereas a person opts for passion, commitment and individualism, this single human being may also choose teamwork, compromise and collaboration if he associates with a social group or institution. In the Modernist era, socialism and collectivism render people to be formed toward a common goal and to be responsible for each other. The individual members of a group are committed to jointly reaching the ultimate product, and share and account for a mutual purpose, performance objective and working style. As opposed to Post-Modernist’s individualism, collectivism has one’s identity essentially comprised of and indicated by his interaction and relationship with others. Thus, the collective sake is put to prime when a person’s needs and goals get subordinated to and sacrificed in favor of those of the bigger group. Universities, organizations and nations prove that people are integral to something larger than their individual selves.
Doing tasks on one’s own has advantages in that working individually makes one accountable for his own actions. Also, it permits one to express himself freely and to innovate. It likewise commits one to pursue personal growth and accomplishment. Regarding decision-making, individuals decide faster and more efficiently.
Meanwhile, individuals will operate based on their organization’s reward-punishment mode despite managers’ pitch for the value of teamwork—something prejudiced towards individualistic competition. A perfect example of this is one’s cooperation or achievement of a task to get the motivational promotion or higher pay for himself alone. The aforementioned disadvantage makes people seem selfish since each person is an end in himself and he should not be jeopardized for another’s sake. It is worth asserting that the individual, not the group, is the elementary constituent of the society. Individualism is not necessarily being uncooperative, heedless, separatist or closed-minded, but seeking out the best (even the worst) in oneself.
Like individual performance, teamwork has advantages too. Whereas variety in personality, age, gender and experience generates problems, it somehow promotes creativity and ingenuity, leading to enhanced decision-making and performance. Diverse perspectives mean greater openness to innovation, various interpretations, heightened creativity, greater flexibility, and additional problem-solving skills. Groups are more favorable than one in terms of decision-making in terms of generating more comprehensive information and knowledge, of bringing up variety of views, of creating higher-quality decisions, and of supporting more acceptable decisions.
However, teamwork is disadvantageous in that it spends more time and resources than individual work. For starters, teams heighten communication demands, conflicts to address, and meetings to do. Hence, the benefits of teamwork exceed the maintenance cost. Notwithstanding, managers still use team where work is better done by just one. In addition, teams can effect in more social loafing or individuals exerting less effort when working as a group. While sometimes enormously beneficial, living in society and cooperating with others are at times baneful, as in the case of American slaves arrangement.
As a case study, team effort in swimming is not readily seen since the race is relegated only as a sport. Besides, the very race generates individual effort at large yet its success depends on the quality of team atmosphere structured on the support the swimmers give and receive mutually.
The Soviet socialist system crashed because it did not recognize individualism, or individual as a person. Collectivism is resistible for it jeopardizes individuality. However, these uncompromising positions give an ultimate self-destruction. Reality check: when the tide rises, all the boats get lifted.
Group papers are a different banana altogether in that by personal experience, papers should be done individually if only for being completely accountable for everything—mistakes, high grades and all. Individual papers can be started the earliest and most convenient time possible, need not ask for anyone’s suggestions and time for rewriting or for unnecessary conflict, uncooperativeness and hard-to-set organization meeting. This is not to overlook the team contribution of fewer burdens for exerting effort, and of more insights and innovation.
In whatever way a task may be accomplished, the preference for individual performance or group work should be gauged on the nature of the task. Simple tasks that need not require comprehensive input should perhaps be delegated to a single person. To cite an example, several new car-dealer service departments have created teams which connect customer service personnel, mechanics, parts specialists and sales consultants. These teams can better render mutual responsibility for ascertaining that the customers’ needs are surely met. Teamwork means something where there exists interdependence among tasks—where the success of the whole is reflected by individual success, and one’s success depends on the others’. Soccer, to illustrate, is obviously a team sport because of players’ interdependence. By contrast, team swimming is merely a group of individuals whose sum of performance gets totaled as a group performance. Individual work kills any chance of escalated disagreements if teamwork is not necessary. In forming teams, managers should collect similar-minded people or persons whose strong beliefs are likely common, and from among people who have mutual trust and liking in order to minimize friction within the group.

Tuesday, August 25, 2009

the hybridizing effect of the filipino diaspora

The experience of migration hybridizes the Filipino identity because the necessary adjustments migrants have to undergo allow them to be accustomed to the ways of their adoptive country. This acculturation is somewhat inevitable, since migratory people including Filipinos cannot isolate themselves and consummately preserve their country of origin’s culture. Should they stubbornly insist in doing so, they will be branded as outcasts, as others of the native citizens. While some migrants seem to have succeeded in creating cultural enclaves like Chinatowns for the Chinese and Koreatowns for the Koreans, the success is not necessarily complete, for in some aspects it is contaminated (i.e. the fact that these towns are outer colonies cannot be erased). Because identities cannot possibly remain pure as one migrates, the Filipino identity becomes adulterated and, therefore, less and less (even lost) Filipino.
As a result of the hybridizing effect of the Filipino Diaspora, the Filipinos unintentionally decrease their loyalty to the Filipino nation. They may claim that being away from the country made it only closer to their hearts, but this is just wistfulness for a home that they have left. The in-between-ness of their situation cannot render them fully loyal to the departed country nor to the adoptive one.

Friday, August 21, 2009

interregime and intraregime uncertainties

Interregime and intraregime uncertainties negatively affect the Philippine economy because for one, political instability is seen by investors as a business risk; they will establish business to earn money, not to lose it. Therefore, investment will run low. Two, a government turnover might have the incoming administration neglect the outgoing regime’s pro-development programs, hence the discontinuation of economic policies. Three, elections are costly and are budget-deficit promoter since most likely, public funds are distributed (thus depleted) more frequently to ensure political and electoral loyalty. Fourth, political cronies get favored by certain administrations and their naked interests may be first served before the welfare of the countrymen. Corollary to this, the increased number of curried favors for the advantaged families and political friends opens the door for their bribing the government officials and these officials going susceptible to graft and corruption.
Emmanuel De Dios sees corruption as an interregime uncertainty that causes our ailing economy while Walden Bello views it as the wrong hypothesis for the poverty in the country. The former believes that the widespread corruption scares away investors, leaving the country underdeveloped while the latter asserts that corruption is not the root of poverty, as even the world’s superpower is not spared from corruption, as may be gleaned from Enron and Worldcom scandals. The two agree only on the point that the interregime rule of the elite promotes their vested interest instead of sustaining national development. However, that is their only tangency because De Dios blames corruption for the lack of investors and the eventual poverty whereas Bello finds no correlation between corruption and poverty.

Tuesday, August 18, 2009

organizational culture: the starbucks case

Organizational culture is a structure of values, beliefs, and assumptions deemed appropriate in thinking and acting inside an organization. Being shared by the organization’s elements, culture helps solve and understand extrinsic and intrinsic problems. Neglected notions, stable and long-lasting beliefs on significant matters and understandings of the relationship between objects and concepts all contribute to the culture at work, so the members accept their validity and are influenced by the same regarding the people’s perspective, thoughts, feelings, and behavior within the organization. The foregoing is a series of cultural artifacts or the perceptible facets of an organization’s culture that help materialize the company’s success.
Most organizations have their respective stories to tell, passed on from generation to generation of employees and customers. These organizations have stories as medium of organizational values education and of its set goals among members. Also, stories can persuade external benefactors into throwing support to the organization. Hence, stories are taken to be indispensably integral to the culture of an organization, and are an essential part of its success. Almost always, these are success stories of the organization’s founders or top employees. To illustrate: Ebony magazine’s originator John H. Johnson always persisted despite constant hindrances like racial discrimination on his pursuit to become America’s richest black man. Consequently, stories serve as reminders and citations of the sterling members who have created a niche in the organization’s success history. The narrative on Johnson exemplifies the use of such to promote members’ camaraderie and is similar to that used by family to instill values across generations. Stories, then, are recognized as a vital medium for upholding a previous generation’s life lessons for future ones to emulate and learn mistakes from.
Another cultural artifact within the organization which outside audiences and members may learn from is rituals. Rituals are customary and recurrent practices that play a certain meaning in any organization. They are functional for conveying the organization’s major values and building relations among employees, outsiders, and managers. Staff meetings, reward and evaluation processes, and lunches are some of the organizational rituals conducted day-to-day. This confirms that many of businesses’ daily organizational activities are rituals in proportion. Likewise, a ritual’s symbolic significance is important. For instance, if a human resource personnel cares less for the workers, and gives untrue and vague feedbacks, the resulting evaluation process would become a vacuous ritual instead of a performance-enhancing one.
Employees also form part of organizational cultural artifacts. Each time a manager interviews a prospective employee, he is up to someone capable, knowledgeable, and skillful enough to perform inside the organization. Once hired, a new employee will imbibe the organization’s culture via role models. Role models are employees with sustained certain social status and are the very epitome of attainable goals. Instead of picking one role model, a new employee cuts out his developing style from several role models’ varied skills and behavior. They consciously select who to interact with and emulate according to the traits believed to bring on success. Managers and supervisors carry the title motivation models whereas secretarial staff and fellow employees, the title survivor models. Survivor models determine the daily expectations like advice and information on practical problems. Meanwhile, motivation models provide inspiration and means to triumph within the organization.
An employee’s interactions with role models reflect his personality traits like expectations, experience, self-confidence and competitive streak. These dealings become the cornerstone of an employee’s career in the organization. New employees with positive role models build confidence with their performance, obtain experience, aware of expectation from them and conscious of the organization’s culture. However, they with negative role models may harbor low self-esteem, conduct a satisfactory level and represent their organization dismally. Hence, management may appropriate employees’ surroundings with particular role models from whom they will hone specific knowledge and skills that management expects them to harness.
Furthermore, role models embody the social norms within an organization. People are more prone to conform in the presence of consequences. Within an organization, a new employee risks being ostracized by colleagues or getting terminated. Thus, he is more likely to abide by the social norms created by their role models and in effect, is representative of the organization’s culture. It is a must for managers to locate employees in the correct environment and customize role models to develop successful socialization of the organization’s culture.
For example, Starbucks enjoin all new employees to consummate twenty-four hours of training. During the period, they will have learned the operation of espresso machines, the customer service reflective of their mission statement, and the processing and production of coffee beans. After training, Starbucks employees are already informed of the culture and ready to transfer this to customers. Training programs offered by organizations such as Starbucks nurture consistency for all employees and empower the organization’s public image.
Starbucks, with its 7000-strong stores across the globe, envisions maintaining diversity as a way of life insofar as it is its culture’s core and its business’ foundation. The organization’s objectives are to attract and keep a manpower that reflects the world, to make policies and practices that uses human potential to the fullest, and to build hopes, realize dreams and develop equity in partners, neighborhood and communities.
All organizational cultures start with tiny group of individuals who direct the organization in their capacity as founders. By virtue of their vision, preferences, values, and belief, they ascertain the process of hiring employees, train and socialize the employees to think founder-style and mold attitude and behavior to fit the vision. Only success will motivate their growth. In the case of Starbucks, an Italian inspiration, president and present CEO, Howard Schultz orchestrated its culture. Schultz’ vision looked toward the flavorful traditional espresso coffee beans after visiting Italy. Ever since then, he bought Starbucks and widened this vision and has peaked in late decades for its phenomenal popularity of enterprising high-quality, whole bean coffee.
It is noteworthy that once culture is grounded in an organization and achieves success, it is imperative to sustain the image and maintain its very own culture. The secret to organizational excellence is ensuring that organizations select the right people for their company. Starbucks focuses their model primarily on their coffee service. Applicants to job positions are supplied with a manual called “Starbucks Coffee Partner Information” to assist them in learning more about the organization and to influence them into recognizing the organization’s culture and beliefs.
Many companies attempt to display identical performance, sales, and production to create the same environment as their companies’ cultural symbol, in citation of other areas relevant to organizational culture. Modifying behavior and values of people do not occur overnight, and in order to design uniformity typifying the similar characteristics of a personality, it is a must for employees to use a formulaic design strategy. Within the 24-hour training at Starbucks, prospective employees are expected to become brewing consultants. For them to learn efficiently and perform better, they are provided with feedback. In effect, the culture is crystallized into these employees and thus, it shares a hand in maintaining organizational culture.
An organization’s culture, a few artifacts of which were just mentioned, produces effects on corporate branding. In the course of prevalent globalization and international franchising of companies, it is necessary for a systematic manner of managing the corporate development in order to strive for long-term success within and without. Organizational culture plays an important role in engendering a company’s image and reputation, both an increasingly important factor for the decision-making of purchasers. Corporate branding supercedes product branding by virtue of the stress on reputation and the images produced not only of one’s products but also of its work environment. One of the competitive edges of businesses is consumers’ view of a company’s holistic role in the community, plus its treatment of employees, stakeholders, the neighborhood and such. Therefore, the operations of culture are rendered relevant and essential to a company’s success. Firms capitalize on reputation in which case history and commitment in-the-works lay foundation on the unparalleled economic value.
Organizational culture helps not only to improve the employees’ potential but also to inspire them to maximize their capacity, learning and growth. In a company’s culture according to consumers and shareholders, a personality or brand reputation develops in order to establish the firm as credible, reliable, trustworthy and responsible and to create a dignified workplace. This transparency of a firm’s internal structure heightens the crucial condition of a healthy culture with a determined, shared set of values, beliefs and norms.
The literature in general gives credence to cultural artifacts as legitimate factors that transform an organization toward its success. Stories are seen as company history to which the pool of workers must always turn in search of lessons and in avoidance of repeating the same blunders in the past. They preserve the elements that keep the company alive up to the present. They inculcate in employees the values that worked and continue to work for their predecessors. In the same vein, rituals provide a glimpse of what is happening inside a company. They are repetitive and customized because these activities are crucial in getting the company going. In a changeable business current, it helps to have rituals to maintain the sanity of the organization by providing a semblance of equilibrium despite notorious changes internally and externally. Employees are the face of the company so the composition of human resources reflects the kind of company one is dealing with. Apprentices look up to their role models in their bid to turn into their own role models too, and the generated behavior of both new and old role models represents the socialization within and outside the company. Vision is the compass of the organization—a medium used to lead the company to its desired and desirable direction. An organization wants a future that ensures a lasting business, and through envisioning does the organization locate itself at a specific success position. Lastly, company image is that artifact which spawns dignity for the organization at-large. The company’s winnable streak toward its clientele significantly depends on its perceived cleanliness in reputation. The more respectable a company looks, the greater are the demands for its services. Other artifacts like performance, production and sales perfect the symbol the company ought to become. All these show that in the heterogeneity of the respective compositions of business organizations, a unifying set of elements stands out to create the sameness among them. These elements in the form of cultural artifacts are the very ingredients that result to company success. They all point to the location the company is heading, and their collaboration converges into an environment that accelerates corporate branding. This corporate branding is a collective work of the cultural artifacts over time, so Starbucks along with other big names in the universe of business is the giant that it is now by virtue of its cooperative cultural artifacts. The unique culture of Starbucks is its own capital in gaining the favor of its patron, so it follows that its artifacts have shared their respective successes to integrate into the larger success that is known to the world as Starbucks.
Organizational culture and corporate branding are inseparable in that the former generates the latter and the success of the latter depends on the sustainability of the former. Without the former, all the existing firms—if they will ever persist in existing at all—cannot be differentiated from one another, killing competition and competitiveness and making the business world dull and dry. They will have no unique stories to tell, no pattern to follow, no face to embroider in the consumers’ memory, no future to assume, no respect to gain. Without the latter, the capitalistic face of business is its only salient point. A company’s environment also matters to consumers and stockholders—they would want to be treated the good way that the company treats its manpower. It is devoid of the human-like (corporation as a complete body) dimension, so how will its clients identify themselves as family or friend? On a positive note, organizational culture and corporate branding provide the diversity that excites employees and consumers; this variety resembles a personality that people can deal with just like any one person. For this, an organization is personified and humans relate best to fellow humans, don’t they? This collective personality of an organization brings about its success as a characteristic, reputable, and people-friendly institution.

Saturday, August 15, 2009

pagpapatiwakal ng mga kabataan

(note: here's a paper i turned in a couple of years ago)
Alam ba ninyong maraming online website na nagbibigay-payo sa mga taong nagbabalak magpatiwakal? Ganito ang kaso sa Hapon, kung saan nauuso ang sabay-sabay na pagpapakamatay ng mga tin-edyer. Hindi kataka-taka, sa mga chat room ng nabanggit na mga site nagkatagpu-tagpo ang mga taong kasangkot sa grupu-grupong pagpapatiwakal.
Isang “akto ng biglaan, intensyonal at hiniling na pagsira ng sarili [the act of deliberate, intentional and wished-for self-destruction“(Fairbaim, 7) ang pagpapatiwakal. Ibinubunyag ng mga datos pang-estadistika na lumobo nitong huling mga taon ang pagpapakamatay sa mga kabataang Filipino (Hicap). Kung walang karampatang aksyon hinggil sa nakaaalarmang pagtaas ng bahagdan ng pagpapatiwakal ng mga kabataan sa Pilipinas, matutulad ang bansa sa Hapon, kung saan mahigit 34,000 katao ang namamatay taun-taon dahil sa pagpapatiwakal.
Isang palasak nang kaalaman na kabataan ang humuhubog sa hinaharap ng isang bansa. Nagiging pangulo sila, puno ng mga kumpanya, senador, abogado at marami pang iba. Gayunpaman, kung mangawawala ang kabataang Filipino dahil sa pagpapatiwakal, wala nang kinabukasan ang bansa lalo pa at bumubuo sila ng malaking bahagdan ng lakas-paggawa sa Pilipinas. Walang kikitain at hindi makararaos ang pamahalaang mas marami ang retiradong mamamayan kaysa mga uring manggagawa.
Isinasaad ng Simbahang Katoliko at halos lahat ng pananampalataya na isang mortal na kasalanan ang pagpapatiwakal dahil tinatanggal ang buhay na bigay ng Diyos nang mas maaga sa Kanyang oras at plano. Sa moral na aspeto, bawal ang pagpapakamatay sa lipunang Pilipino. Sinasalamin nito ang pagkabulok ng moralidad dahil isa itong kasalanang pinagdesisyunan at isinaalang-alang na isakatuparan. Kung maipaalam ang pambansang kamalayan hinggil sa kasagsagan ng pagpapatiwakal at kung gaano ito nagdudulot ng pagkapuksa ng lipunan, maaasahang bababa nang matulin ang bilang ng mga kaso ng pagpapakamatay. Maraming kabataang Filipino ang maiisip na inutil ang pagpapatiwakal at totoong maraming mas mabuting pamamaraan upang solusyunan ang mga suliranin kaysa basta na lang magpakamatay.
Marami ang hindi nakapapansin na nagiging dambuhalang problema ng Pilipinas ang pagpapakamatay. Dahil dito, layunin ng papel na ito na patindihin ang at lumikha ng kamalayan ang lahat ng sektor gaya ng pamahalaan, ang akademya, maging ang midya ng lipunang Pilipino. Sa pamamagitan ng pagpapaalam sa iba’t-ibang sektor, maraming tao ang maisasabuhay na natatalo na ang digmaan laban sa pagpapatiwakal at panahon na upang gumawa ng paraan para mapagaan ang sitwasyon. Maisasakatuparan lamang ang pagresolba sa pagpapakamatay sa pagsasama-sama para bumuo ng malawakang kamalayan. Maaabot ang mga layuning ito sa pamamagitan ng malawakan at masusing pananaliksik sa estadistika, mga artikulo, sarbey at panayam tungkol sa pagpapatiwakal.
Ang Pag-usbong ng Pangkabataang Pagpapakamatay
Ipinapakita ng mga pag-aaral ng Philippine Mental Health Examination na mataas ang panganib ng pagpapakamatay sa mga lalaki at babaeng nasa kalagitnaan ng gulang 45 hanggang 50 at 50 hanggang 55. Gayunpaman, lumilikha na ng matinding alon sa niyayanig na bansa ang pagpapakamatay ng mga binatilyo at dalagita. Ayon sa mga bagong estadistika, tumataas ang bahagdan ng mga kabataang nagpapakamatay partikular ang mga nasa edad 15 hanggang 24 dahil sa mga panahong ito, nakararanas sila ng todong pagkalito at nakararamdam ng asulto ng maraming salik (Jara-Puyod).
Inilalarawan ng mga mananaliksik ang mga kabataang Filipino sa kasalukuyang napakabilis na panahon na “namumuhay sa bingit ng kawalang-pakialam…namumuhay sa pinatinding kapaligiran dulot ng mga impluwensiya sa paligid [living on the edge with carefree attitudes… living in hyped up environment brought about by environmental influences]” (Hicap, 9). Samantala, kaugnay ng maraming suliranin, kagustuhan at pakikipagtunggali ang pamumuhay na ito upang magtagumpay at maging mahusay dulot ng malaking pag-asa sa kanila at mabigat na responsibilidad na nakaatang sa kanilang balikat. Maraming kabataang hindi nakauungos sa ganito ang nag-aabuso ng droga at tinitignan ang pagpapatiwakal bilang tanging lunas sa kanilang mga dalahin.
Sa Estados Unidos, ikatlo ang pagpapatiwakal sa mga nangungunang dahilan ng kamatayan ng mga kabataan sa pagitan ng 15 hanggang 24 taon. Ibinabadya ng estadistikang ito na mas maraming tin-edyer at kabataang namamatay sa pamamagitan ng pagpapatiwakal kaysa sa sama-samang sakit sa puso, kanser, AIDS, depekto sa kapanganakan, atake at sakit sa baga (Laparan). Sa Hapon, lumalalang problemang panlipunan ang pagpapatiwakal ayon sa kumpirmasyong nakalap ng National Police Academy (NPA). Noong 2003, lumobo ng 57.6 porsiyento ang bahagdan ng mga nagpakamatay na mag-aaral sa elementarya at middle school samantalang 225 estudyante sa hayskul ang nagpatiwakal. May pagtaas din ang bilang ng mga estudyante sa kolehiyo na pinapatay ang kanilang mga sarili. Tumaas ang kabuuang bahagdan ng mga nagpatiwakal sa mga edad 19 pababa haggang 22 porsiyento noong 2003 (Curtin). Hindi malayong maugnay sa Estados Unidos at Hapon, umaakyat sa nakababagabag na bahagdan ang kabataang pagpapatiwakal gaya ng nauuso.
Ayon kay Leah Valbuena, guro sa Sikolohiya sa Pamantasan ng Pilipinas-Manila at kasalukuyang nagbibigay ng payo sa mga nagbabalak magpakamatay, nangangahulugan ng “agresyon para sa sarili [the aggression directed towards the self]” at “para sa pagkawasak ng sarili [for self-destruction]” ang pagpapatiwakal (Laparan). Kahit walang matibay na paliwanag bakit sumusubok magpakamatay ang mga tin-edyer at kabataan, may kabuuang pagsang-ayon na “nakararamdam ng kawalang-pag-asa sa kanilang sitwasyon ang mga kabataang nagpapakamatay at naniniwalang hindi ito nagbabago [youth who take their own lives feel hopeless about their situation and believe it will never change]“ (Hicap, 9).
Samantala, ipinakikita ng mga pag-aaral na maraming salik na nagtatalaban sa bayolohikal, emosyonal, intelektuwal at sosyal na pag-unlad ng mga kabataan ang nagtutulak para sila magpakamatay. Ayon sa National Institute for Mental Health, pahiwatig ng mga salik na ito na ang mga kabataang gustong magpakamatay ay mayroong mababasang kaguluhang nauugnay sa isip o sa droga, at mayorya ang mayroong higit sa isang kaguluhan. Mahalagang maunawaan ang mga sintomas ng ganitong kaguluhan at mabasa itong maigi para magamot agad ang mga nagbabalak magpatiwakal.
Isa sa mga sanhing ito ang sakit sa isip. Ipinakikita ng estadistika sa Pilipinas na:
Siyamnapung porsiyento ng mga biktima ng kabataang pagpapakamatay ang may isang madaling-basahin at aktibong sakit-pangkaisipan sa panahon ng kamatayan—kalimitang depresyon, pag-abuso sa droga o kaguluhan sa pag-aasal. 15 porsiyento lamang ng mga biktima ng pagpapatiwakal ang ginagamot bago mamatay. Sa pagitan ng 26 at 33 porsiyento ng mga kabataan ang dati nang sumubok magpakamatay (Cuenca 1).
Depresyon ang nangungunang salik sa maraming pagpapatiwakal ng mga kabataan at pagsubok na pagpapatiwakal. Ito rin ang isa sa pinakamahirap matagpuan dahil maaaring tila dumadaan lang ang biktima sa isang bahagi ng pagkagalit. Sa kabilang banda, kung ang bahaging ito ay lumagpas sa isang linggo at iba pang senyales ng depresyon ang lumilitaw gaya ng pagbabago sa ganang kumain, pagtulog, pagkilus-kilos, pagkamailap at pag-iisip ng kamatayan o parusa, dapat itong seryosohin (Cuenca). Kahit maraming iba pang salik na nagdaragdag sa depresyon ng mga kabataang Filipino, kalimitang bunga ito ng kawalang-balanseng kemikal, sakit-pampisikal, pisikal na pagkagupo, pagbaba ng pagkatuto, mga pagbabagong kemikal sa panahon ng pagbibinata o pagdadalaga at pagkagumon sa gamot (Hicap).
Isa pang salik ng pagpapakamatay ang pag-abuso sa alak at droga. Ang mga problemang nauugnay sa salik na ito ang nagbubuyo sa mga tin-edyer para maisipan o mag-astang magpakamatay dahil nakapagdudulot ng depresyon ang alak at droga, at nagpapababa ng inhibisyon para saktan ang sarili. Makapagdudulot ng seryosong depresyon ang maling paggamit sa mga bagay na ito, lalo na sa mga tin-edyer na napapahamak sa depresyon bunga ng kanilang bayolohiya, kasaysayang pampamilya, o iba pang nakapagbibigay-problema sa buhay (HealthyPlace). Bukod sa kanilang epektong depresyon, nakapagpapabago ng paghatol ang droga at alak. Nakahahambalang sila sa kakayanang lumirip ng panganib, bumuo ng wastong desisyon, o umisip ng solusyon sa suliranin. Maraming nangyayaring pagtatangkang pagpapakamatay kung nasa impluwensiya ng alak o droga ang isang tin-edyer.
Isa pang salik sa pagdetermina ng panganib ng pagpapatiwakal ang suliraning pangkaasalan. Malimit, maraming tao ang nag-aakalang tahimik, maramdamin at mailap ang mga mapagtangkang magpakamatay. Samantalang maipaliliwanag ang paghihinuhang ito, maraming kabataan ang kabaligtaran ang ipinapakita; maaaring makulit sila at mapang-asar. Sa puntong sikolohikal, matatarok ang kaguluhan sa pag-aasal sa:
Paulit-ulit o makulit na gawi ng pag-aasal kung saan ang mga basikong karapatan ng iba o nararapat na paggalang sa nakatatanda ay nasisira, na makikita sa presensya ng tatlo (o higit pang) basehan sa nakaraang 12 buwan, at isang basehan ang makikita sa nakaraang 6 na buwan: pagkagalit sa mga tao o hayop, paninira ng kasangkapan, panloloko o pagnanakaw at ilan pang seryosong pananabotahe ng mga alituntunin (HealthyPlace).
Mataas ang panganib sa pagpapatiwakal sa mga kabataang may
problema sa pag-aasal dahil sa kanilang suliranin sa agresyon at mas malamang na manakit ng ibang tin-edyer kaysa manakit ng kanilang sarili kung nalulungkot sila o nagugulumihanan. Dagdag pa, maraming kabataang may problema sa pag-aasal ang may karamdaman din sa depresyon.
Sa kabilang banda, ilang kabataang nagbabalak magpatiwakal ang maaaring itinulak ng ilang suliranin gaya ng nagbibigay-traumang pagtatakwil, pagkainsulto, pagkatalo o pagbagsak. Maraming kabataan ang nabubuyong magpakamatay dahil sa “kanilang kawalang-kakayahan para makipag-ugnayan, pagiging perpekto, pagpupursige para umangat o magpakitang-gilas, pagkritiko ng sarili, wala-sa-reyalidad na pagtanaw sa kamatayan, paghihiganti o pagmamalabis ng kahinaan [their inability to communicate feelings, perfectionism, pressure to achieve or perform, self-criticism, unrealistic view of death, revenge or exaggeration of faults]” (Hicap,9). Marami sa mga kabataang ito ang simpleng nag-aalala at di-sigurado na may obsesyong magustuhan. Inilalagay nila ang kanilang sarili sa mataas na pag-asam at pinipilit ang kanilang sarili ngunit laging talunan. Isang kaso ng pagpapakamatay na kapansin-pansin ang anak ni Senador Miriam Defensor-Santiago na nagpakamatay matapos makakuha ng mababang marka sa Ateneo Law School at hindi tanggapin ng Pamantasan ng Pilipinas, gayong naipasa na nito ang sulating pagsusulit. Ilan pa sa mga ganitong kaso ay pagbagsak sa pagsusulit, di-napaghandaang pagbubuntis, aksidente (Cuenca), at gulong pangrelasyon gaya ng hayskul sa Ateneo na si Christian Duke Pizarro, na nagbaril sa sarili matapos makipagsayaw ang kasintahan niya sa ibang estudyante noong magdaos ng junior prom (Tubeza).
Bukod dito, ilang kabataan ang nabubuyong magpakamatay sa pamamagitan ng kanilang mga kakulangang sosyal gaya ng pag-iisa, pagkamailap, kawalang-kaibigan, kawalan ng galing sa pakikipagkapwa, kawalang popularidad, hindi pagiging kabilang, kahihiyan sa harap ng mga barkada, katawagang siraulo, tanga o kakaiba, pasaway sa bahay, paaralan, batas o pagiging layas [isolation, withdrawal, friendlessness, lack of social skills, unpopularity, feelings of not belonging, embarrassment before peers, being labeled as ‘crazy’ , ‘stupid’ or ‘different’, in trouble at home, school, with the law or being a runaway]” (Hicap, 9). Maaari ring maging sanhi ng pagpapakamatay ang mga kaguluhan gaya ng hirap sa pagharap sa oryentasyong sekswal at imaheng pangkatawan at suliranin sa pagkain. Ilang pangkapaligirang salik ang maaari ring magpataas ng panganib ng pagpapakamatay gaya ng tangkang pagpapatiwakal ng miyembro ng pamilya o kaibigan, karahasan sa pamilya, suliranin sa paaralan, abusong sekswal o malaking pagbabagong pampamilya (Hicap, 9). Nagdudulot ang mga salik na ito sa damdamin ng kalungkutan, pagkagulumihanan, pagpapadalus-dalos, kahinaan, pagkawala, hinagpis, pag-iisa, mababang morale, galit, pagkakasala, kawalang-pag-asa, pagiging kawawa at pag-aalala na sa sobrang lala ay walang maisip na ibang gawin sa buhay malibang wakasan ito.
Ipinapakita ng estadistika na 64 porsiyento ng mga biktima ng pagpapakamatay mula 10 hanggang 24 taon ang gumamagamit ng baril para tapusin ang balak (Cuenca), kaya nga ang di-nababantayang baril sa loob ng bahay ay malaking panganib. Inihayag ni Dr. Valentin del Fonso Garcia ng Philippine Mental Health Association na mas delikado ang mga babaeng tin-edyer na magbalak magpakamatay kaysa lalakeng tin-edyer, ngunit mas nagtatagumpay sa balak ang mga lalake nang tatlo o apat na beses kaysa mga babae dahil mas determinado silang gawin iyon at gamit ang mas nakamamatay na mga pamamaraan. Nagtatangka namang saktan o patayin ng mga babae ang kanilang sarili sa pamamagitan ng labis na gamot na nainom o paglalaslas (Jara-Puyod).
Sa kabila ng lahat ng mapanganib na mga salik na ito para sa mapagtangkang magpakamatay at nauusong pagpapatiwakal sa mga kabataan, nakaaalarma na kakaunti ang nakaaalam ng ganitong krisis, at para sa mga nakaaalam, ay maaring hindi kayang tumugon nang tama sa pangangailangan ng nagpapakamatay na mga kabataan. Sinabi ni Senador Santiago sa isang panayam kay Laparan na matapos ang pagpapatiwakal ng kanyang anak, hindi tinatratong seryoso at masidhi ang nauusong pagpapakamatay sa Pilipinas dahil
“normal ngunit kalunus-lunos na dahil sa mga gawi ng kultura, ilang tao ang naiisip na dapat supilin ang pagpapatiwakal at hindi dapat inaamin. Kaya nga, bilang epekto, umiiral ang lipunan sa mapayapang katahimikan na mayroong ganitong pangyayari na nakarating sa ating dalampasigan at maaring mas delikado kaysa AIDS dahil naapektuhan nito ang mga kabataan…[“[n]ormally, yet unfortunately, because of cultural norms, some people still think that suicide should be hushed up and should never be admitted. So, in effect, the society is living in blissful ignorance that there is such a phenomenon that has already reached our shores and that it can be deadlier than AIDS because it hits the young people…].” (Laparan)
Matapos ang pagpapakamatay ng kanyang anak, hinimok ni Santiago si Pangulong Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo na lumikha ng Youth Suicide Prevention Center, na naglalayong iayon sa hubog ng National Youth Service Prevention Center, ngunit hindi pa aprubado ang pakiusap niya.
Samantala, patuloy na umaakyat ang bahagdan ng pagpapatiwakal sa mga kabataang Filipino dahil maraming tin-edyer ang hindi makapagpakita ng damdamin at kaisipan nila habang nalilito ang mga magulang, miyembro ng pamilya at mga mahal nila sa buhay kung paano tatratuhin ang ganitong krisis. Totoong may tawag ng pagkilos: ang pagpokus sa ganitong isyu lalo na ang gobyerno na siyang may gawaing resolbahin ang kasalukuyang pangangailangan at suliranin ng mga mamamayan.
Pagbangon ng National Center for Suicide Prevention
Naipakita ng mga datos pang-estadistika na lumobo sa huling mga taon ang pagpapatiwakal sa mga kabataan. Gayunpaman, nabubuhay sa pagbubulag-bulagan ang lipunan at hindi kinukunsidera na ang pagpapatiwakal ay kailangang tumanggap ng pambansang atensyon at pag-aalaala ng publiko. Kung mayroon mang National Center for Suicide Prevention in the Philippines na siyang magtataguyod ng kampanya para sa kaalaman, matatawagan, at propesyonal na panggagamot, magiging malay ang mga kabataang Filipino hinggil sa pagpapatiwakal at kaugnay na resulta, na siyang siguradong maghihila sa umaakyat na bilang ng pagpapakamatay sa bansa.
Pangunahing programa ng National Center for Suicide Prevention ang pamamahagi ng kaalaman upang magpunla ng pag-unlad at kamalayan sa mga kabataang Filipino. Itinuturing ang paaralan na isa sa mga mahahalagang institusyon sa bansa sapagkat maraming natututunan ang kabataan dito. Hinuhubog ng mga guro ang mga mag-aaral upang maging mahusay sa pang-akademikong larangan kahit pa nga kakaunting paaralan lamang ang mga paaralang nagsasama ng Pilosopiya bilang bahagi ng kanilang kurikulum. Samakatuwid, dapat bumuo ang Center ng maraming diskusyon sa kampus upang mapaalalahanan ang mga estudyante hinggil sa ilan sa mga salik, sanhi at hudyat na senyales ng pagpapatiwakal. Maaaring psychiatrist o sikolohista ang tagapagsalita o dating mapagpatiwakal na taong makapagsasalaysay ng kanyang personal na karanasan upang maliwanagan ang isipan ng mga kabataanna nagmumuni-muni upang magpatiwakal na. Marapat na makapagtalakayan sila ng mga pamamaraan upang tulungan ang mga mapagpatiwakal, na may napagsasabihang mapagkakatiwalaan dahil ang pagmumuni-muni ng pagpapatiwakal ay isang bagay na hindi dapat inililihim (Chua, 5). Dapat magpakita ang mga kamag-anakan at kaibigang nakapapansin ng depresyon at nasang magpatiwakal ng pag-unawa at magmungkahi ng tulong propesyonal para sa nagugulumihanang tin-edyer. Dapat makapagbigay ng suporta sa mapagpatiwakal ang napagsasabihan o ang medikong propesyonal dahil nakararamdam siya ng ginhawa kung may pagtangkilik at pagsimpatiya sa kanya.
Maliban sa mga awtoridad ng paaralan, dapat na magpa-seminar ang mga grupong simbahan at samahang pangkalakalan hinggil sa mga panganib ng pagpapatiwakal at ang ibubunga ng ganitong padalus-dalos na aksyon. Dapat na maging malay sila sa kasidhian ng suliranin dahil ayon kay G. Philip Chua, manunulat ng Malaya,
“nagpapakita ang estadistikong kinalap mula 1952 hanggang 1992 sa Estados Unidos na ang kabataang pagpapatiwakal sa mga nagkakaedad ng 15-19 taon ay naging triple (386 porsiyento ang itinaas sa nakaraang 40 taon). Pangatlo sa pinakamabagsik na dahilan ng kamatayan ang kabataang pagpapatiwakal sa grupong 15-24 taon, na bumubuo ng 13.7 porsiyento sa lahat ng kamatayan. {[s]tatistics gathered between 1952 and 1992 in the United States show adolescent suicide among those 15-19 years of age has tripled (386 percent increase the past 40 years). Adolescent suicide is the third leading cause of death in the 15-24 age groups, accounting for 13.7 percent of all deaths.} (5)”
At dahil marami nang naiulat na kaso ng pagpapatiwakal dito sa Pilipinas, tila ba sumusunod sa yapak ng Amerika ang Pilipinas kung dami ng pagpapakamatay ang pag-uusapan. Tamang oportunidad ang magpa-seminar para matulungan ang mga kabataang nalilito at napapagod upang maayos nila ang kanilang buhay dangan at makapagbibigayan sila ng mga kalituhan at nakaantabay ang mga kaugnay habang tuluy-tuloy ang usapan.
Bilang bahagi ng programa sa pagpapakalat ng impormasyon, dapat na maglagay ang mga trabahador ng Center ng mga paskil, pakalat at websites na may nakaeengganyong katotohanan, estadistika at datos hinggil sa pagpapatiwakal. Gagawin ito upang matawag ang pansin ng taong inosente sa pag-iral ng suliranin sa pagpapatiwakal at inaasahang tutulong magpigil ng paglago ng mga kaso ng pagpapakamatay. Ibinatay ito sa Yellow Ribbon Suicide Prevention Program na nakatulong na sa libu-libong kabataang walang pag-asa, walang tumutulong at walang kasiguruhan. Mayroon silang website kung saan matatawagan sila ng mga tao at gumawa sila ng mga paskil at pabigay upang paangatin ang kamalayan ng mga tao tungkol sa kanilang mga programa upang malaman ng mga nagbabalak magpapatiwakal kanino hihingi ng tulong.
Dagdag pa rito, maraming isipang madaling mabuyo ang naiimpluwensiyahan ng midya, kung kaya hindi matatawaran ang sektor na ito sa proseso ng pagpapakalat ng impormasyon. Gamay ang mga kabataan sa maraming uri nito at ilan sa kanila ang komportableng patnubay ang midya. Samakatuwid, isa sa maaaring gawin ng Center ang makiusap sa midya upang bawasan ang kontrobersya sa pagpapatiwakal at dahas para lamang maakit ang mga manonood. Dapat itigil ang pagluluwalhati ng pagpapatiwakal sa mga telebisyon, diyaryo at radyo dahil “nagtutulak ito para sa mga sensitibong tin-edyer para isakatuparan ang naiisip at planong pagpapakamatay [it can serve as a trigger for vulnerable adolescents to act on suicidal thoughts and plans]” (Chua, 5). Tinatawag itong “cluster suicides” o “contagion suicides” dahil sa maraming bilang ng nagpapakamatay na maiuugnay sa mga kuwento ng pagpapatiwakal sa mass midya. Halimbawa, tumalon si Yukiko Okada, pnarangalan bilang pinakamagaling na bagitong mang-aawit ng Hapon, mula sa ikapitong palapag ng kanyang pinagrekordang istudyo. Napakatindi ng atensyon ng midya na sa sumunod na 16 na araw, 33 kabataan ang pinatay ang kanilang sarili, 21 rito ang tumalon mula sa gusali. Ilang kanta naman ang rumarahuyong magpatiwakal, gaya ng “Suicide Solution” ni Ozzy Osbourne. May isang linya rito na nagsasabing, “sapagkat nararamdaman mong nabubuhay ka sa kasinungalingan…wala kang tataguan, pagpapatiwakal ang tanging paraan [‘cause you feel like you’re living a lie…where to hide, suicide is the only way out].” Sa kabila ng linya ng kantang ito, hindi dapat ituring na sagot sa suliranin ang pagpapakamatay dahil literal nitong sinisira ang buhay ng isang tao. Kung gayon, hindi dapat ginagawang kontrobersyal ng midya ang pagpapatiwakal, luwalhatiin ang biktima, o palitawing magandang karanasan ang pagpapakamatay o mabisang gamit para maisakatuparan ang personal na mithiin dahil aakalain ng mga kabataang tama ang sinasabi ng midya.
Isa sa nakagaganyak na paraan para pagsama-samahin ang mga ito ang pagdaraos ng isang taunang aktibidad, isang fundraising concert na magpapalaganap ng pagpigil sa pagpapatiwakal, kaalaman at suporta. Maaari itong isang pagdiriwang gaya ng Pandaigdigang Araw ng AIDS na inaalaala tuwing Disyembre 1 para matutunan ang mga nakasisirang epekto ng sakit na ito at pagtibayin ang paglaban dito. Noong 2003, magkatuwang na idineklara ng World Health Organization at International Association of Suicide Prevention ang Setyembre 10 bilang Pandaigdigang Araw ng Pagpigil sa Pagpapatiwakal (Center for Suicide Prevention). Layunin ng araw na ito na magdaos ng mga aktibidad na magpapaangat ng kamalayan ng publiko hinggil sa pagpapatiwakal at ipaalam sa mga kabataang hindi ito ang wastong solusyon sa lahat ng kanilang problema dahil maraming epektibo at di-masakit na alternatibo gaya ng paghingi ng payo at pagpapagamot. Magkagayunman, nananatiling hindi nasasabihan ang mga kabataan. Ilang ang hindi pa alam na umiiral ito, kaya praktikal ang konsyerto para isagawa ang pagpapalaganap. Maaring tumulong ang ilang artista ng midya gaya ni Kyla o ng South Border, na magagamit ang kanilang talento para magpaabot ng mensahe at bawasan ang bahagdan ng kabtaang nagpapakamatay sa Pilipinas. Tungkol sa pagpapayo sa mga kabataan ang konsyerto upang kumilos sila para mapigil ang pagpapatiwakal sa bansa.
Bukod sa programang pagpapakalat ng impormasyon sa pamamagitan ng iba’t-ibang proyekto, magsisilbi ang National Center for Suicide Prevention bilang klinikang puwedeng dalawin, bisitahin at pagtanungan ng propesyonal na tulong ng mga tao. Sa buong araw, mag-aalok ng libreng serbisyo sa pagtawag ang klinikang ito, kung saan ilang sinanay na boluntaryo o psychotherapist ang aagapay sa mga mapagpakamatay. Kung naiisip ng boluntaryo na kailangang basahing mabuti ang suliranin o kung naiisip ng tumawag na kulang ang hotline para ilabas ang kanyang saloobin, maaaring ikonekta ng tagatanggap sa isang propesyonal na manggagamot ang tumawag upang mabigyan siya ng sesyon ng gamutan.
Maglalaan ang Center ng linya para sa pagpigil ng pagpapatiwakal kung saan may ilang tagatanggap na mamamahala sa mga tawag. Magsisilbi itong libreng bigay-payo para sa lahat ng may suliraning mapagpatiwakal at kanilang pinagtitiwalaan, pamilya at kaibigan upang mapayuhan sila at malaman ang gagawin sa mga minamahal sa buhay na ibig magpakamatay. Samakatuwid, kung kailangan ng isang tao na magsalita tungkol sa kanyang saloobin, maaari niyang tawagan ang numero ng hotline at makasigurong maaalagaan, makakapaniguro at matutulungan siya.
Ayon kay Schneidman, patnugot ng librong Essays in Self-Destruction, may limang hakbang na kailangan para magamot ang mapagpatiwakal na pasyente:
(1) Pagbuo ng relasyon—pagpanatili ng kontak at pagkuha ng impormasyon; (2) Pagkilala ng at pokus sa sentro ng suliranin; (3) Pagtataya ng potensyal sa pagpapakamatay; (4) Pagtataya sa mga kagamitan at pagpapakilos ng panlabas na kagamitan; at (5) pormulasyon at pag-uumpisa ng planong panggagamot. (388)
Kung sinagot ng sinanay na boluntaryo o psychotheprapist ang tawag
mula sa biktimang mapagpakamatay, kailangan niyang lumikha ng matibay at positibong relasyon sa kanyang pasyente para magtagumpay ang panggagamot. Kailangang mag-alok ng pag-asa at tulong ang manggagawa at tanggapin nang buung-buo ang kanyang pasyente at mga problema nito. Pagkatapos, kailangang makakuha ang manggagawa ng ilang impormasyon tungkol sa pamilya nito, mga kaibigan at kapaligiran upang makilala ang ugat ng suliranin at mataya ang potensyal ng pagpapakamatay. Pinakalayunin ng manggagawang panatilihing buhay ang kausap, upang mataya ang potensyal ng pagpapatiwakal ng tumatawag base sa kanyang gulang at kasarian, balak na pagpapakamatay, kaguluhan, sintomas, kagamitan, karakteristikong pagkilos, pakikipagtalastasan, reaksyon ng mga minamahal sa buhay, katayuang pangmedikal, at dating ugali ng pagpapatiwakal. Matapos ituring ang lahat na impormasyong nakalap mula sa tumatawag, magtataya ang manggagawa ng pormulasyon ng planong pamamahala. Responsible ang manggagawa sa pagdetermina kung ang tumatawag ay ilalapit sa psychiatrist, psychiatric na ospital o klinika, o bibigyang- payo sa telepono.
Kung ang pasyente ay nangangailangang masuring mabuti,
rekomendado ang pakikipagtipang gamutan sa isang propesyonal na psychiatrist. Isang tamang hakbang ang gamutan sa isang hotline dahil magbibigay ito ng direktang relasyon sa pagitan ng tumatawag o pasyente at manggagawa o manggagamot. Dapat itong magbalik ng larawan ng kaayusan, upang tulungan ang pasyente at ang kanyang pamilya at mga kaibigang muling makapagkontrol, at buuing muli ang sitwasyon upang mas malinaw itong makita at mas tamang aksyon ang isasagawa.
Kailangang kumonsulta ang isang mapagpatiwakal sa isang makatutulong na magaling na psychiatrist dahil ang huli ay makaaalam ng sakit ng isang pasyente at kung paano gumagana ang kanyang katawan at utak (Nichols, 15). Higit pa ito sa isang pagpapayo sapagkat hindi lamang kakausapin, sesermunan o pagpapayuhan ang pasyente; manapa, bibigyan siya ng preskripsyon ng gamot para sa mas mabuting kalusugang pangkaisipan at pangdamdamin. Maraming tao ang magsasabi sa isang pasyente na humingi ng tulong ng espesyalista dahil ang paghingi ng tulong propersyonal ang pinakamahusay na desisyong magagawa para gumaling sa sakit.
Gaya ng unang hakbang sa gamutan, magbubuo muna ng ugnayan ang espeyalista at pasyente upang maging kumportable ang pasyente sa pagsisiwalat ng kanyang suliranin at upang matulungan naman ng espesyalista ang pasyente sa kanyang alalahanin. Mabisa ang ugnayang gamutan at pagkakaibigan para magtagumpay ang gamutan at dapat na ipagpatuloy (Rudd, Joiner and Rajab, 12). Dapat na mabigkis ang ugnayan ng dalawa at pagkakaibigan sa isa’t isa upang magtiwala at dumepende ang pasyente sa espesyalista at upang ang huli ay patuloy na mag-aruga sa una hanggang ito ay hindi na muling magbalak magpakamatay. Dapat na aktibo, alerto at marunong ang espesyalista upang magawa ang lahat para matulungang maiahon ang biktima sa kanyang mahirap na sitwasyon at panahon sa buhay.
Isang halimbawa ng kaguluhan ang depresyon na dapat mabasa sapagkat ang hotline ay hindi sapat para makatulong sa kanya. Sanhi ng sakit sa isip ang 95% ng lahat ng pagtatangkang magpakamatay; depresyon ito at kulang ang pakikipag-usap sa telepono kasama ang kaibigan o mahal sa buhay sapagkat nakararamdam sila ng paghihirap at kawalang pag-asa sa isang sitwasyon na hindi basta-basta matugunan. Samakatuwid, kailangang magmungkahi ang espesyalistang uminom ng mga gamot pang-alis ng depresyon ang pasyente. Doble ang tsansa ng paggaling ng pasyente sa loob ng isang buwan sa paggamit ng partikular na gamot pantanggal-depresyon (Aboede, 28). Maidagdag pa, kailangang tratuhin sa isang propesyonal na gamutan ang mga sakit sa isip.
Upang matulungan ang mapagpatiwakal at kanilang kamag-anak, kailangang mapunan ng iba’t ibang materyales ang Center sa pamamagitan ng pagsasagawa ng regular na pananaliksik sa mga tendensya ng pagpapakamatay ng bawat indibidwal. Nag-iiba-iba ang tendensya ng pagpapakamatay ng magkakaibang gulang. Dapat na mag-sarbey at isaayos ang estadistikang makakalap upang maihanda ng Center ang mga impormasyong kailangan sa gamutan ng mga pasyente.
Dapat na maihanda ang mga impormasyong kakailanganin sa pagtaya ng potensyal sa pagpapakamatay. Kakayanan ito ng isang pasyente na wakasan ang kanyang buhay at magkakaiba ang tendensyang ito sa bawat tao. Halimbawa, mas maigting ang pagpapakamatay ng mga naninigarilyo kaysa hindi naninigarilyo.
Dulot ng maraming salik ang pagpapakamatay. Malawak ang mga dahilang ito, mula depresyon o lubhang pagdurusa. Nitong huli, kasama na sa mga salik ang paaralan, tulad ng kaso ni Alexander Santiago na pinatay ang sarili matapos lumagpak sa pagsusulit para makapasok sana sa isang nangungunang pamantasan. Gawain ng Center na makiuso sa mga gawi at teknolohiya upang malaman ang mga posibleng dahilan ng pagpapakamatay sa hinaharap.
Ilan ang nagsasaad na hindi isang pagpili ang pagpapakamatay. Pinapatay ng ilang tao ang kanilang sarili dahil nakararanas sila ng dusang hindi nila makayanan. Posibleng bumaba ang tumataas na bilang ng kabataang pagpapakamatay kung makaimbento ng pang-alis-sakit, na maaring sa porma ng gamot, bagay o makinang makapagpapaginhawa sa pagdurusa ng biktima, at makapagpapagaling sa kanya.
Inaasahang Pagtuligsa
Sinusuportahan ng pananaliksik ang mga inilaang solusyon para sa suliraning inilarawan ngunit maaaring tuligsain ang pagtatayo ng National Center for Suicide Prevetion sa Pilipinas ay walang bentahe dahil mahirap na bansa ito at kasalukuyang may krisis-pang-ekonomiya. Saan naman kukuha ang bansa ng perang pampatayo ng ganitong institusyon? Dahil masidhing problema ang pagpapatiwakal at dapat na matugunan agad, dapat na maglaan ng pondo ang pamahalaan sa paglikha ng ganitong Center. Maaaring maraming mapanira ang magsasabing dapat unahin ng gobyerno ang mas mabibigat na isyu. Subalit paano makakayang tumunganga ng isang bansa at mga lider nito samantalang nangamamatay ang mga kabataan at wala silang magawang solusyon dito? Itinuturing ng Estados Unidos na masidhing isyu ang pagpapatiwakal ng mga kabataan kaya nagbangon ito ng National Center for Suicide Prevention. Dapat na tularan ng Pilipinas ang nasabing prinsipyo. Maaari ngang hindi mapera ang Pilipinas para balikatin ang buong badyet para sa mungkahi kumpara sa Estados Unidos, ngunit puwede namang papag-isahin ang mga pribadong sektor ng mga negosyante o non-government organization na nakatuon na ang pansin sa kalusugan at edukasyon ng mga kabataang Filipino. Samantalang marami nang samahang nag-iilak para paunlarin ang mga pag-asa ng bayan, ngunit wala pang Center kung saan magtatagpu-tagpo silang lahat at mamamahala sa pagpigil at pagtrato ng mga mapagpakamatay. Hindi dapat pabayaan ang mga mamamayan ng bansang ito. Habang may mga mamamayang gustong tugunan ang ganitong krisis, kulang ang kanilang oportunidad para tumulong. Sa pagtatayo ng National Center for Suicide Prevention, makagagawa ng pondo ang mga mamamayang ito na maipantutustos sa mga partikular na proyektong pinaniniwalaan nila. Karaniwang pamilya o mahal sa buhay ng mga biktima ang mga mamamayang ito. Ang binanggit na programang Yellow Ribbon Suicide Prevention na itinayo sa Estados Unidos ay ibinangon ng isang nagluluksang inang ang anak ay nagpakamatay. Puno ng hangaring mapigil ang ibang kabataan sa paggawa ng parehong pagkakamali at maiwasan ng ibang pamilya ang mapait na karanasan, nangampanya ang inang ito para mapalawak ang kaalaman at kasidhian ng pagpapatiwakal sa mga kabataan.
Isa sa mga isinulong na solusyon para paangatin ang kamalayang Pilipino sa lumulobong mga kaso ng pagpapakamatay ang pagpapakalat ng impormasyon sa mga kumperensyang pampaaralan. Isa sa mga pagtuligsa ang kawalan ng epekto sa pagpapalaganap ng pagpigil ng kabataang pagpapatiwakal dahil magrereklamo ang mga estudyante na masyado silang abala para dumalo at makinig sa nakababagot at inutil na diskusyon. Iminungkahi ni Santiago na ikompromiso ang mga estudyante sa mga kursong etika at pilosopiyang moral, upang malaman at mabigyang-kahulugan ang depinisyon at kahalagahan ng buhay. Isa ang Ateneo de Manila University sa mga paaralang kasama ang pilosopiya at etika sa buod ng kurikulum. Malaki ang bentahe ng pagdalo ng mga estudyante sa mga klase sa pilosopiyang nag-uudyok sa kanilang pakinggan ang mga pagtitipon para sa pagpigil ng pagpapakamatay sa pagbibigay ng sapat na oras para madaluhan ito; sa parehong paraang sapat ang oras para daluhan ng mga estudyante ang mga dula para sa mga klase ng Ingles at Panitikan, pagdalo ng pabasa ng tula, usapang kalakalan, oryentasyon, seminar at partisipasyon sa usapan sa kalinisang pangkatawan, usapan sa karera at pagpili ng dalubhasaan para sa programa ng patnubay sa hayskul. Integral sana ang usapang kampus sa mga kurikulum, at para mamintina ang interes ng nakikinig, dapat na masinsin ngunit malaman upang maganyak ang mga mag-aaral na makinig at makiisa, mataya ang kausuhan ng pagpapatiwakal sa Pilipinas at gumawa ng aksyon hinggil dito.
Isa pang mungkahi ang pagkontrol ng pagluluwalhati ng pagpapakamatay sa telebisyon, pelikula at musika. Subalit tutuligsain ng mga kritiko na hindi mapipigilan ang midya sa pagpapakontrobersyal ng pagpapatiwakal at dahas dahil makaaapekto ito sa kanilang bahagdan ng manonood. Ang lantarang pagpapakita ba ng pagpapakamatay at dahas ang tanging paraan ng midya upang mahalin ng kanilang manonood? Bukod dito, may mga sensor na para sa mga programang pantelebisyon at pelikula na itinuturing na hindi maayos at imoral para sa madaling mahubog na murang kaisipan. Naisyuhan ng mga babala ang mga artistang sina Regine Velasquez ar Zsa Zsa Padilla dahil sa pagsusuot ng seksing mga damit na naglalabas ng bahagi ng kanilang dibdib. Ilang programa sa ABS-CBN ang nasuspinde gaya ng Victim ni Carlos Agassi dahil sa mga kasiraang mental at emosyonal sa ibang tao. Dahil may pundasyon na ang mga sensor sa telebisyon, palalawakin na lamang nito ang panunuri upang maisama ang mga palabas na nag-aangat ng tendensya ng pagpapatiwakal at dahas sa mga kabataang Filipino. May masidhing pangangailangang paliitan ang kontrobersya sa midya dahil sa lumalaking bahagdan ng “cluster suicides” na resulta sa mga kabataang madaling marahuyo ng mga imahen at musikang nadarama nila. Bukod sa pagpapanipis ng pagluluwalhati ng pagpapakamatay, maaaring magamit ng pamahalaan at Center ang midya sa pagpapalaganap ng mga proyekto at kaugnay na impormasyon nito.
Kaugnay ng serbisyong hotline, maaaring tuligsain ang pagiging impersonal nito dahil hindi magkaharap ang magkausap, taliwas sa pagbisita sa isang espesyalista na makasasaksi sa lahat ng emosyon, pakiramdam at asta ng pasyente. Dagdag pa, mas may kontrol at maigigiya ng tumatawag ang proseso ng gamutan kung gugustuhin niya dahil puwede niyang putulin ang panayam bilang reaksyon sa kagustuhang putulin ang tawag. Kahit pa maging totoo ito, ipinapakita ng estadistika na mahigit 95 porsiyento ng mga kaso sa Suicide Prevention Center sa Los Angeles ang ginawa muna sa pamamagitan ng kontak sa telepono. Sa 50 porsiyento ng mga tawag, kumokontak muna ang mismong pasyente at ang iba ay isinasagawa ng ibang tao (Shneidman, 387). Pinapatunayan nito na epektibo ang suicide prevention hotline dahil mataas ang bilang na ito ng mga tumatawag na may tendensiyang magpakamatay.
Isang suliraning kakaharapin ng hotlines ang mas malaking tulong na magagawa ng pakikipagkita ng pasyente sa isang espesyalista kaysa simpleng pakiipag-usap lamang dito. Kung ang pangangailangang tumawag ay masyadong impersonal, maaaring hindi na muling kumontak ang pasyente. Samakatuwid, dapat imungkahi ng sinanay na boluntaryo na tumawag muli ang pasyente at sabihing walang dapat ikahiya sa paghingi ng tulong. Kung hindi ito gagana, makaaagapay ang mga taong pinagtitiwalaan ng pasyente, pamilya at kaibigan sa pagkonsulta sa tulong propesyonal na inilalaan ng hotlines.
Isama pa rito, ano ang mangyayari kung walang pera ang biktima at kailangang suriin siya sa pamamagitan ng propesyonal na gamutan? Saan siya hahagilap ng pambayad sa psychotherapist na tutulong sa kanya sa kanyang mga tendensya? Hindi naman lahat ng gamutan ay mahal. Maari siyang kumunsulta sa mura dahil ang mahusay na gamutan ay hindi depende sa dami ng pambayad kundi sa kasanayan ng boluntaryo o propesyonal. Kung wala pa rin siyang sapat na pera para rito, maaari siyang humanap ng tutulong magbayad dahil marami namang mababait na taong bukas sa loob na magbayad para sa kapus-palad.
Pagpapababa ng Pagpapatiwakal ng kabataang Filipino
Malinaw na umabot na sa nakatitigatig na yugto ang bahagdan ng pagpapakamatay ng mga kabataan sa Pilipinas. Tila may dalawang uri ng reaksyon para sa ganitong partikular na eksena: may ilang taong sumusubok maging ‘di-kasangkot at manatiling walang pakialam sa lumalaking bilang ng kabataang pagpapakamatay, samantalang tumutulong ang iba ngunit walang ideya kung paano pumalaot sa proseso. Kailangan ngang magbangon ng National Center for Suicide Prevention. Magbibigay ang Center ng impormasyon at pagtataya ng mga istratehiya para mapigilan ang pagpapatiwakal, ng libreng serbisyong hotline at propesyonal na gamutang magpapanipis ng lumalalang pagpapakamatay sa mga kabataang Filipino. Ipapalaganap ang mga impormasyon tungkol sa mga dusang nakaaapekto sa pagpapatiwakal o mga senyales at sintomas ng isang nagbabalak magpakamatay sa mga usapan sa paaralan, seminar, konsyerto, paskil sa midya, at opisyal na website. Magsisilbing klinika rin ang Center, kung saan maihahandog sa nangangailangan ang propesyonal na gamutan at tulong. Magtatayo at magsasagawa ng hotlines kung saan may mga manggagawang may karanasan sa pamamahala sa larangan ng pagpapakamatay ang handang umagapay. Dahil ang mga gawi at salik ng pagpapakamatay ay nag-iiba-iba at tumitimpla sa panahon, mahalagang mabigyan ang National Center for Suicide Prevention ng mga bagong impormasyon na posible lamang kung may patuloy na pananaliksik gawa ng mga miyembro ng mamamahalang samahan sa Center.
Nilalayon ng Center na tulungan ang mga taong apektado at ‘di apektado
sa lumalalang kaso ng mga kabataang nagpapakamatay sa Pilipinas. Bibigyan ang mga Filipinong kabataang dumudulog sa Center ng mahalaga at propesyonal na atensyon sa pamamagitan ng iba’t-ibang pasilidad gaya ng panggagamot, website at tatawagang kontak numero. May mga grupo at indibidwal ding walang magawa kung paano makikisangkot sa laban ng mga kabataang pagpapakamatay, na matutulungan ng Center sa pamamagitan ng pagbibigay ng mga bagong impormasyon tungkol sa ganitong mga kaso. Sa presensya ng National Center upang ikalat at ipaalam sa tao ang kasagsagan ng sitwasyon ng mga nagpapakamatay, maiisip ng mga walang pakialam na makisangkot sa laban dahil ang pagkaubos ng batang populasyon ng bansa ay makaaapekto sa kanila sa kalaunan. Kinakailangan ng pakikipagtulungan ng bawat isa upang mapababa ang bilang ng mga kabataang nagpapakamatay.
Totoo ngang nakapaghahandog ng kinakailangang impormasyon, panggagamot at serbisyo ang pagtatayo ng National Center for Suicide Prevention para sa lahat ng tin-edyer at kabataan at kani-kanilang pamilya hanggang ang pag-uso ng pagpapatiwakal ng kabataan sa Pilipinas ay bumaba nang tuluyan.

Thursday, August 13, 2009

lopsided transnational policies

The policies of International Monetary Fund, World Bank and World Trade Organization hostage the world economy, aggravating the poverty situation across the globe. All three have poor countries enter one-sided transnational investment deals that instead of lessening unemployment, intensifying production technology and globalizing exports, only enrich transnational corporations whose investment in poor countries siphon off public money.
Left with no alternative but ask for credit to be used for development, the Third World countries are indebted more and more to these three institutions, which make these poor nations believe that only free market-regulated economic happenings among intervening states will captivate credit access and foreign investors’ notice. Ironically, it is these Developing countries that are captivated by a recurring cycle of incurring debt, growing interests and an imminent cutoff of credits and economic penalty if they ignore these institutions’ instructions. The Third World’s prosperity remains unseen because in the global market, they are up against the industrialized nations.

Tuesday, August 11, 2009

madder than mad: identity crisis in hamlet

Hamlet is one complex man. His manner in dealing with himself and with people is very inconsistent. By analyzing four given attitudes that could be considered reasonable explanations for Hamlet’s odd behavior, we could make the intricacy of his disposition more unpretentious.
First, we need to consider the possibility that perhaps, Hamlet is truly insane. After all, it is a plausible explanation for Hamlet’s flimsy and surreal ways. This is evidently seen in Act 3, Scene 4 when Hamlet pays a visit to Gertrude to reprimand her for her treachery. In the middle of his discourse, he stops because he sees a ghostly apparition, “ A king of shreds and patches --- Enter Ghost --- Save me and hover o’er me with your wings, you heavenly guards! --- What would your gracious figure? [Ophelia] Alas, he’s mad.” (Shakespeare, lines 117-121). At this point, we know that it is only Hamlet who sees this ghost. Gertrude does not. This kind of circumstance is not very common. His misery and longing for his father may have led him to conjure up the ghostly apparition. With all the astounding affairs and fallouts happening around him at such a fast pace in a short span of time, it could be logical that he couldn’t handle it and that the depression has taken its toll, driving him to invoke bizarre phantoms that may insinuate madness in his part. Also, his insanity is evidently seen in Act 2, Scene 1 when Ophelia told Polonius that Hamlet has visited her in her room, “He took me by the wrist and held me hard … He falls to such perusal of my face as he would draw it. Long stayed he so…” (Shakespeare, lines 98-103). Any decent man would find this act so surreal. With a look so intense and so tormenting, Hamlet lovingly strokes Ophelia’s face as if he bids farewell. Behind such a calm exterior, Hamlet’s blank expression seems to be full of meaning. Ophelia, being the naïve girl she is, got scared and fled to speak to her father. Polonius, just as shallow and gullible as his daughter, rightfully concluded that Hamlet has gone mad because of love. Polonius’ assumption can be considered logical. After all, unrequited love can drive any man to a state of depression. This could have driven him to insanity.
Second, we have to consider that perhaps Hamlet is just feigning insanity. Ever since the late King Hamlet revealed the reason behind his death, Hamlet resolves to think of nothing besides avenging his father’s unjust death. Thus, he decided to adopt a disguise of mental insanity. By acting like a madman, he will be able to conceal his bloody motives. This is evident in Act 1, Scene 5 when Hamlet reveals his plan to Horatio, “How strange or odd some’er I hear myself (As I perchance hereafter shall think meet to put an antic disposition on)… That you know aught of me --- this do swear, so grace and mercy at your most need help you.” (Shakespeare, 190-202). During this time, he has decided that his crazy and extraordinary cover would be disguise his intention of killing Claudius. Hopefully, he can go about with planning his methods without any suspicions from Claudius’ camp and he will do this by feigning insanity. He also feigned insanity right before the play he organized. In Act 3, Scene 2, he talks boldly and ambiguously to Ohelia as if he shows genuine affection to her when in fact, he almost denounced Ophelia days before, calling her a “breeder of sins.” This radical change of attitude may have been purposefully done by Hamlet to emphasize his supposed “state of insanity.” By portraying himself as a rather vicious man one minute and a gentle man the next, he lets other people think that he’s somewhat unstable and dangerous.
Third, Hamlet may have been feigning insanity at times and is actually insane at other times. This could be seen in Act 3, Scene 1 when Hamlet unexpectedly bashed Ophelia and criticized her for being a flawed woman. At this point, Hamlet has an inkling that he and Ophelia were not alone --- that somewhere in the distance, the presence of Claudius and Polonius are lurking and listening intently to their conversation. Perhaps Hamlet deemed this situation as an opportunity to carry out his plan of befitting a state of madness. By suddenly hurting someone he openly loves, it would rather be convincing that he indeed has gone mad. By saying “get thee to a nunnery. Why wouldst thou be a breeder of sins? …” (Shakespeare, lines 131-141), he has also showed an insane side of him that may not have been done purposefully. While it is possible that the whole scenario is mostly a ploy on Hamlet’s part to dupe Claudius and Polonius, he did hurt Ophelia too --- someone he dearly loves --- and this makes him insane.
Lastly, Hamlet may be perfectly sane all throughout the play. In Act 4, Scene 4, we see a logical side of Hamlet. After a brief encounter with Fortinbras’ army, Hamlet realizes that he has done little to avenge his father’s death, “ How stand I, then, that have a father killed, a mother stained, excitements of my reason and my blood, and let all sleep, while to my shame I see the imminent death of twenty thousand men that for a fantasy and trick of fame go to their graves like beds, fight for a plot whereon the numbers cannot try the cause, which is not tomb enough and continent to hide the slain? O, from this time forth my thoughts be bloody or be nothing worth!” (Shakespeare, lines 59-69). In the whole soliloquy, we catch Hamlet reasoning as to why he has to plot such a lowly and cruel plan in order to seek revenge for his father. He compares his fight with that of Fortinbras’ army who are fighting for the mere illusion of honor. As Hamlet reasons, we see a logical side of him based on his arguments. We sense that he isn’t mad because after all, an insane man does not reason.
These four attitudes are logical and very conceivable but I think the third characterization is the most applicable one. After resolving that he would avenge his father’s death, he took this state of madness as a plan. However, since he has been in a state of depression because of the traumas he underwent, it is likely that he has partly gone insane. Thus, hamlet can be considered a very complex man --- a man in the middle of an identity crisis.

Sunday, August 09, 2009

the impact of change

Change rules the world. Changes brought about by events and accomplishments surely define who one is now. Not surprisingly, one experiences changes in every facet of one’s life. One’s growth is manifested in one’s physical, social, mental, and emotional transformation. For this, a human is different from lower forms of animals in that one is capable of evolving into a refined individual. One can sympathize as well as empathize with fellow humans. A person’s experiences create an impact in the changes occurring to oneself. Hence, the individual experiences humans own set them apart from one another. Two individuals may have felt something in common, but their respective accounts of that same experience get interpreted according to their separate perspectives. What is certain is that the collective experiences a person has shape the person that one is.

Friday, August 07, 2009

feast and famine stories' summaries

My current lesson in ENG1 in UPLB deals with summarizing so in the interest of performing what one preaches, here are the summaries of three stories in the fabulous collection Feast and Famine by Rosario Cruz-Lucero:
Doreen’s Story
The story is about a woman who led a sheltered existence inside a house in Silay City. The woman, Anabella, had a typical macho haciendero father and a cultured yet subservient mother for parents, whose marriage got marred by insinuated adultery, husband domination and, ultimately, ended in suicide. She fell in love with an impoverished would-be dentist so it was theorized that the father prevented her from marrying someone not from her class. An alternative ending, however, put forth the possibility that Anabella, furious over her lover’s secret desire for her mermaid friend, did not wish the marriage herself. Upon her death, Anabella left behind a vast load of literary works, a product of her generations-old seclusion inside her bahay na bato.

The Oracle of the One-Eyed Coconut
The story is about an alleged witch’ single-eyed magical coconut, the blink of which would signal a catastrophe, the latest being the Mayor’s assassination. His wake was not sounded by knell, which was upon the instruction of the priest who has had a dispute with the Mayor over nine disappeared teen-agers and over the church’ diminishing congregation. The priest was a moving force in the village, bringing it to a thriving agricultural economy but eventually losing out his ward to other sects. He even had a spiritual contest as a confessor with Estrellita, the owner of the coconut. They did an ethereal tug-of-war over the power to deliver the spirit of an old man who fell from a coconut tree. An aspiring beauty queen niece of the Mayor believed that his uncle’s murder was politically instigated, and her student activism would finally motivate her into bombing the church’ façade. As a proof of the potency of the coconut’s magic, it elicited a cosmic quake when it plummeted as Estrellita rushed her way back to the funeral, causing worms for vermiculture to wreak havoc in the Kabakawan village.

The Composo of Hacienda Buyung
The story is a series of composos or ballads which attempt to give explanation to phenomena happening around West Visayan towns, in this case around Hacienda Buyung. The first composo deals with a spurned lover’s sack of jewels being guarded by the river mermaid. The next is about the nine desaparecidos who were mistaken for members of New People’s Army. The composo of the stranded whales follows a sidelight on a hunchback who served the grand old lady visionary of the manor. In the wake of political salvaging and disappearances, seven women who became desaparecidos themselves—believed to have been seduced with jewelry by the landlady’s son—were the object of another composo. Then follows the ballad of the Australian cows which could not adapt to grazing in an underdeveloped country that is the Philippines. Finally, the composos end with one about the mass graves discovered while an American treasure hunter did his excavation in the village property. The composos were interwoven and given closure by a babaylan descendant, Tiya Estrella.

Tuesday, August 04, 2009

tradition and revolt: the katipunan

The Katipunan as the initiator of the 1896 armed uprising probed how the revolution got its flame fanned from below. The rapidity in which Katipunan gathered fire was on one hand caused by Andres Bonifacio’s manifesto, Kalayaan, which was pasyon-like in its traditional form. While the initiation rites in the Katipunan may have Masonic origins, the group eventually customized them for members—peasant and workmen by class—to be familiarized. Furthermore, the Katipunan movement seemed to analogize their quest for kalayaan with the liberation of Bernardo Carpio, the mythical king of the Tagalogs, whose prison cave in the mountains of San Mateo, Rizal became a pilgrimage site of Bonifacio and other Katipuneros. Other Katipunan documents were coherent in that they helped mold the people’s lakaran into the holy quest for kalayaan that it was.

Saturday, August 01, 2009

the king intoxicated

Not unless my brave estimations fail me for the nth time (my numerical faculty is insecure, remember?), you are a sweet sixteen going on seventeen: so young, so vibrant, so much in the prime of your life. The cosmos at large teems with many awesome fields for your boldly driven curiosity to explore, experiment on, discover. You jot these down: girls, fads hard drinks…
Amazingly, I was not in the least shocked upon learning from my good friend Claudette that you along with your equally daring chums were in PNR Site emptying bottles of Red Horse beers (or Colt 45, I wasn’t sure), their contents washing your unbaptized stomachs. It was not that I did not care for you, I always did and still do, but it would appear irrational to find myself nagging you unstoppably while sending you and your companions home. That so, Claudette and I nonchalantly whiled our time away in Old Market chatting to people crossing our lane, until we happened to see your unusual self skulking in the dark Ladies Dorm # 6 Alley. The Lantern King—all but drunk, drowsy, queer behaving, no control of both his words and his deeds.
Look: I reserve to your dear parents the right to sermonize you for taking in more than your bodily system can tolerate. I hate being an antagonist to people whom I am concerned about, but face the truth: you have gotten nauseated in so small an amount. Reason: weak resilience.
Secondly, I am not a puritan to advocate a liquor ban on anyone’s esophagus, much more on yours especially because you discard your own money. I confess that once (and only once) I tried downing loads of Tanduay with my fellow bothered friends; afterwards, I felt guilty doing so because of the forgettable embarrassment that ensued. Picture this: a first-timer throwing up insides. I hope you won’t get as excessively dizzy as I did then.
Lastly, do not use your youth as an excuse: you are old enough to delineate the right from the wrong. You could have decided to stay at the dorm attending to more productive activities such as washing dirty clothes or reviewing in advance, you gave in to occasional hedonism. Drinking is neither you’re vice, cup tea nor priority, you might rebut: you drank anyway.
Act under your own discretion. You are in complete hold of your life.